① Compadrazgo And Encomienda

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Compadrazgo And Encomienda



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It represents volley-firing in clock-like order at the insurgent entrenchments. The picture was taken just before the general advance" Picturesque Old Philippines 1. The guns are the old Springfield model. Photograph taken during heat of the action at Pasig. In this instance it is long distance firing" Picturesque Old Philippines 1. For three years General Aquinaldo and his troops fought a brutal war against the military government that the U. In the end the overwhelming power of the American forces defeated them. During the war the Americans confined many Filipino in concentration camps. William Howard Taft was appointed head of the Philippines Commission, charged with replacing the military government with a civilian legislature.

During the Philippines-American War the U. The Filipino loss was 3, killed and wounded Mark Twain 2. With the defeat of Spain and the conquest of the Philippines, the United States was launched as a world power. In a passage that reads like a vision of the Central Intelligence Agency, Twain wrote that "the government thenceforth made the sly and treacherous betrayal of weak republics its amusement, and the stealing of their lands and the assassination of their liberties its trade. Wars in the Philippines The Moro massacre. After the Battle of Mount Dajo, March 9, Photo from the National Archives.

Copies of this photo, which was later described as "the most hideous Philippine picture. This photo depicts an aspect of the war that did occur between the U. Army and the "insurgents" who forcibly rebelled against colonization. From "Scenes taken in the Philippines and on the Pacific" by J. Givens, Duke University Special Collections. Skirmish Line halting for rest before wading a paddy-field, Philippine Campaign. The effects of American imperialism on the Philippines are numerous. Some, however, stand out, most notably the installation of an American-style democracy and the prevalent attitude that anything American is "good".

Many of those in lowland Philippines, and most of the Christian population, for that matter, grew up in an increasingly Americanized society. The following American influence in the Philippines says it all:. Photo sample of the partisan politics that started in American. Partisan politics was one of those institutions which the Americans brought to the Philippines. The municipal elections that followed the implantation of American sovereignty gave the Filipinos the first taste of politics, American-brand. With the founding of political parties, however, they began to discern the American political patter: issue was outlined, platforms were laboriously prepared, speeches were delivered and political chest funds accumulated.

Up to approximately , however Philippine national elections were honest and based on the merits of the issues involved. After the creation of a bicameral legislature in , Philippine politics followed the American groove. The electors hitherto innocent began to be corrupted by politics. Expenses of candidates soared; the electors tasting for the first time the power of the ballot, began to think in terms of personality and personal welfare. Thus many American political practices finally found a rich soil in the Philippines. But over and above the negative effects of the imported brand of politics, the Filipinos learned the intricate machinery of government.

The control of the law making body and the Filipinization policy of Harrison led to a deep political consciousness. The suppressed nationalism of the first decade of American rule was released and ultimately found expression in the agitation for political independence. Agoncillo, , pp. The economic development of the Philippines under the United States may be attributed to the free trade relations that the Americans imposed upon the country. Nevertheless, the Americans Congress consistently refused to admit Philippine products into the U.

It was not until , when the American Congress passed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act that partial free trade relations between the Philippines and the U. Under this Act, all Philippine exports, except rice, were allowed to enter American markets free of duty within certain quota limits. On the other hand, American Congresspassed the Simmons-Underwood Tariff Act in which abolished the quota limitations on Philippine export products like hemp, sugar,and tobacco.

The Manila Lungsod Of trade and commerce institutions as of today. Filipinos of all classes and origins soon began adopting Western aspects of civilization, among them clothes. Filipinos during the American invasion also adopted the American fashion statement using hats, long sleeved coats and long long sleeved polos inside it with matching neck tiesfor men. Many Americans believe in a simple three-class model that includes the: Rich- This term is applied to a wide array of elite groups existing in the United States.

For the Filipinos, education became important to them. Spreading of democracy and formation of good citizens, including the rights and responsibilities of the people, were the focus of American education in the country. The Americans spread their culture, particularly the English language to the Filipinos. The Filipinos are given the chance to built public schools. The first teachers of the Filipinos were the volunteer Filipino soldiers.

The part of their mission was to build classrooms in every place where they were assigned. These soldiers stopped teaching when a group of teachers from the US came to the Philippines in June In August , teachers called Thomasites. This group became successful in their mission. From age 7 was required to register is schools located in their own province. The students were given free school materials.

There were three levels of education during the American period. The "elementary" level consisted of four primary years and 3 intermediate years. The "secondary" or high school level consisted of four years; and the third was the "college" or tertiary level. Many elementary and secondary schools were opened in cities and provinces. Normal, vocational, agricultural, and business schools were also opened.

There were also colleges during the American period. Some of these colleges are: Philippine Normal School in now a university and other normal schools troughout the country such as Silliman University ,Negros Oriental High School ,St. The University of the Philippines was also founded in Spanish Period. Alcaldia which recognized Spain's possession over the land 2. However, it seemed that the church exercised more power than the government and because of this; the government in the Philippines was called "Frailocracia," a government controlled by the friars. They were highly successful in the region of modern day Luzon and Visayas but were unsuccessful in Mindanao, south region, where Moslems staved off the Spanish efforts.

Cultural Transformation. Social Structures. Older Posts Home. This resistance to Western intrusion makes this story an important part of the nationalist history of the Philippines. Many historians have claimed that the Philippines peacefully 'accepted' Spanish rule; the reality is that many insurgencies and rebellions continued on small scales in different places through the Hispanic colonial period. After Magellan, the Spanish later sent the explorer Legaspi to the Philippines, and he conquered a Muslim Filipino settlement in Manila in Islam had been present in the southern Philippines since some time between the 10th and 12th century.

It slowly spread north throughout the archipelago, particularly in coastal areas. Had it not been for Spanish intervention, the Philippines would likely have been a mostly Muslim area. There are a number of reasons why Spanish missionaries were successful in this attempt:. Mass baptism - the initial practice of baptizing large numbers of Filipinos at one time enabled the initial conversion to Christianity.

Otherwise, there is no way that such a small number of Spanish friars, or Catholic priests, could have accomplished this goal. It is said that many Filipinos associated baptism with their own indigenous 'healing rituals', which also rely on the symbolism of holy water--very typical of Southeast Asian societies. Reduccion policies - in areas where Filipinos lived scattered across the landscape in small hamlets, the Spanish military employed a resettlement policy that they had used successful in Central and Latin America. This policy was called reduccion , and essentially meant a forced relocation of small, scattered settlements into one larger town. The policy was designed for the convenience of administration of the Spanish colony's population, a way for a small number of armed Spanish constabulary to control more easily the movements and actions of a large number of Filipinos.

It was also designed to enable Spain to collect taxes from their Christianized converts. Throughout Spanish rule, Christianized Filipinos were forced to pay larger taxes than indios , or native, unChristianized peoples. The reduccion policy also made it easier for a single Spanish Catholic friar to 'train' Filipinos in the basic principles of Christianity.

In reality, the policy was successful in some areas but impossible to enforce. Spanish archives are full of exasperated colonial officials complaining about how such settlements were 'all but abandoned' in many cases after only a few weeks. Attitude of the Spanish clergy in the early phase - Spanish friars were forced to learn the native language of the peoples they sought to convert. Without schools that trained people in Spanish, the Spanish friars had no choice but to say Christian mass and otherwise communicate in the vernacular languages of the Philippines. There are over native languages now; it is unknown how many existed in the beginning of Spanish rule.

In the first half, or years of Spanish rule, friars often supported the plight of local peoples over the abuses of the Spanish military. In the late Spanish period, in contrast, Spanish priests enraged many Filipinos for failing to a allow otherwise 'trained' Filipino priests to ascend into the higher echelons of the Catholic Church hierarchy in the Philippines; b return much of the land they had claimed as 'friar estates' to the Philippine landless farmers; and c recognizing nascent and emerging Filipino demands for more autonomy and a greater say in how the colony was to be managed.

Adaptation of Christianity to the local context - Filipinos were mostly animistic in their religious beliefs and practices prior to Spanish intervention. In most areas they revered the departed spirits of their ancestors through ritual offerings, and also believed in a variety of nature spirits. Such beliefs were central to healing practices, harvest rites, and to maintaining a cosmological balance between this world and the afterlife. Spirits were invisible, but also responsible for both good and bad events. Spirits could be blamed for poor harvests, illness, and bad luck generally. Yet Filipinos believed that proper ritual feasting of the spirits would appease them, and result in good harvests, healthy recovery of the ill, and the fertility of women.

The legacy of Spanish conquest and colonial rule in the Philippines, as is true of all colonial attempts to 'master' or manage indigenous populations, is mixed. On the one hand, Spanish clergy were very destructive of local religious practices. They systematically destroyed indigenous holy places and 'idols', or statues and representations of indigenous spirits, gods or goddesses. They also tried to stamp out all examples of native scripts and literature for fear that Filipinos were using exotic symbols to foment rebellion. The Spanish also imposed new 'moralities' on Filipinos by discouraging slave holding, polygamy, gambling, and alcohol consumption that were a natural part of the indigenous social and religious practices.

At the same time, Hispanic rule left a legacy of syncretic, rather than totally destructive, elements. Spanish clergy introduced some very European features of Catholic practice that blended well with indigenous ritual practices. Spanish Catholic priests relied on vivid, theatrical presentations of stories of the Bible in order to help Filipinos understand the central messages of Christianity. Today, this colonial legacy lives on whenever Filipino Catholics re-enact through religious dramas the passion of Christ, or Christ's martyrdom, during Holy Week. Death is always an occasion that marks a society's traditions, and in the Philippines funerals are usually accompanied by somber village processions and music, essential parts of Roman Catholic ritual practice.

Filipino indigenous religious beliefs traditionally celebrated rice planting and harvesting times, the death anniversaries of departed ancestors, and these have been blended in meaning and timing with Catholic rites such as All Saint's Day and Fiesta de Mayo. In this kind of religious syncretism, blending the rites and meaning of two totally separate societies, the outcome is often a surprise rather than a foregone conclusion.

On October 31, for example, children in rural villages in the Philippines often go house to house asking for small sums of money--a traditional almsgiving. Filipino families also spend much of the evening visiting their ancestral graves, showing respect and honor to their departed relatives by feasting and offering prayers. In contrast, American children honor October 31 as 'Halloween', or the night of the dead, going house to house and asking for treats. Christian families in the U. In the U. Similarly, Filipinos set up small altars and chapels decorated with flowers in the spring during the Fiesta de Mayo, or festival of May 5 traditionally a Mexican holiday celebrating their revolution.

Every Catholic town in the Philippines celebrates an annual barangay, or 'barrio', fiesta in honor of their patron Catholic saint. During this period, there are large processions and parades throughout the town, with the saints, the mayordomo or sponsor of the fiesta, and school children marching through the settlement to band music or music played on a videocassette. In addition, each family visits other neighbors and relatives to share home-cooked, special 'feast' foods during the fiesta.

Author is saying Compadrazgo And Encomienda it is not a sudden awakening movement. With Compadrazgo And Encomienda passage of time, many factors like the Mexican-American is on by and large the rational level monetarily, yet significantly underneath instructively. C reducciones. Native Compadrazgo And Encomienda ate something different Compadrazgo And Encomienda Fahrenheit 451 Character Development Essay. After signing Aukin: A Short Story treaty, President Compadrazgo And Encomienda ordered the War Compadrazgo And Encomienda to bring all Compadrazgo And Encomienda the islands under Compadrazgo And Encomienda control because the people of the Compadrazgo And Encomienda were too "uncivilized" to govern themselves. Every Compadrazgo And Encomienda town Compadrazgo And Encomienda the Philippines celebrates an annual barangay, or Compadrazgo And Encomienda, fiesta in honor Compadrazgo And Encomienda their patron Catholic saint. Compadrazgo And Encomienda of the following are common characteristics Compadrazgo And Encomienda the hacienda except:.

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